Endnotes

1

Critical infrastructure refers to the processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks, and services essential to the health, safety, security, and economic well-being of Canadians and to the effective functioning of government. Public Safety Canada. 12 June 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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2

In this assessment, we use the term cybercrime to refer to criminal activity involving a network or network-connected device.

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3

United States Department of Justice. 13 December 2017. Accessed September 2018; and Perlroth, Nicole. The New York Times. 21 October 2016. Accessed September 2018

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4

Cyber Threat Alliance. 19 September 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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5

Canada Revenue Agency. 31 August 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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6

Extortion refers to unlawfully obtaining money, property or services from a person or institution through threats or force.

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7

Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre. August 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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8

Canadian Centre for Cyber Security. June 2017.

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9

Rocha, Roberto. CBC News. 3 August 2018. Accessed September 2018. Original dataset available at: Data Source.

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10

Canadian Internet Registration Authority. 22 March 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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11

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 15 January 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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12

The Globe and Mail. 18 June 2018. Accessed September 2018; Evans, Pete. CBC News. 28 May 2018. Accessed September 2018; and Canadian Financial Group. 28 May 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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13

A smart phone or laptop computer may have been designed in one country, the raw materials and specific components like the screen, microphone, and camera can come from companies around the world, and the device itself could have been assembled in yet another location before reaching a consumer in Canada.

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14

A supply chain is defined as the system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from a supplier to a customer. See National Institute for Standards and Technology. April 2015. Accessed September 2018.

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15

Corera, Gordon. BBC News. 26 July 2018. Accessed August 2018; and Menn, Joseph. Reuters. 18 September 2017. Accessed September 2018.

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16

PricewaterhouseCoopers United Kingdom. April 2017. Accessed September 2018; and Nish, Adrian and Tom Rowles. BAE Systems. 3 April 2017. Accessed September 2018.

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17

National Audit Office (United Kingdom). 25 April 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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18

Communications Security Establishment. 19 December 2017.

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19

United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT, Department of Homeland Security). 15 March 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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20

Perlroth, Nicole, et al. The New York Times. 27 June 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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21

Communications Security Establishment. 15 February 2018.

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22

BBC News. 26 February 2016. Accessed September 2018; and BBC News. 11 January 2017. Accessed September 2018.

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23

Smith, Rebecca. The Wall Street Journal. 24 July 2018. Accessed September 2018; and United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT, Department of Homeland Security). 15 March 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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24

CTV News. 24 July 2018. Accessed September 2018; and Canadian Municipal Government Meeting Agenda. 24 July 2018. Accessed September 2018.

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